react

Test-Driven Development with React, Jest, and Enzyme - Part 2

Posted by Caleb Pollman on Apr 23, 2018

This is part two of Test-Driven Development with React, Jest, and Enzyme. You can find the first part here.

Last time we began with the project overview, which included a brief explanation of Test-Driven Development (TDD), the application design process, and a high-level synopsis of the application components. From there we continued to the project setup and began writing our (failing) tests, then the code to pass those tests, ultimately finishing with our Calculator snapshot. At this point we have finished the UI for the Calculator and Display components, and have begun work on our Keypad component.

Parts:

  • Part 1: In the first part, we’ll set up the overall project and then dive into developing the UI with Test-driven Development.
  • Part 2 (this post!): In this part, we’ll finish the UI by adding the number and operator keys before we dive in to adding the basic calculator functionality.

component structure

Let’s get back in to the red, green, refactor cycle by testing the rendering of Keypad for numbers and operators!

Contents

Keypad Component

Test for numbers and operators Rendering in Keypad

In the same way that we tested for the rendering of the displayValue prop in the Display component, let’s write rendering tests for both the numbers and operators props in the Keypad component.

In Keypad.spec.js, start with the numbers test:

it('renders the values of numbers', () => {
  wrapper.setProps({numbers: ['0', '1', '2']});
  expect(wrapper.find('.numbers-container').text()).toEqual('012');
});

Then update Keypad.jsx to pass the test by adding a map function to iterate through the numbers array along with a container div element to house our new elements:

...
const Keypad = ({callOperator, numbers, operators, setOperator, updateDisplay}) => {

  numbers = numbers.map(number => {
    return (
      <p key={number}>{number}</p>
    );
  });

  return (
    <div className="keypad-container">
      <div className="numbers-container">
        {numbers}
      </div>
    </div>
  );
}
...

The Keypad › should render a <div /> should now break, since there is more than one div.

Update the test in Keypad.spec.js:

it('should render 2 <div />\'s', () => {
  expect(wrapper.find('div').length).toEqual(2);
});

All pass! Follow the same pattern for operators, in Keypad.spec.js:

it('renders the values of operators', () => {
  wrapper.setProps({operators: ['+', '-', '*', '/']});
  expect(wrapper.find('.operators-container').text()).toEqual('+-*/');
});

Then update the component in the same way we did for numbers, in Keypad.jsx:

...
const Keypad = ({callOperator, numbers, operators, setOperator, updateDisplay}) => {

  numbers = numbers.map(number => {
    return (
      <p key={number}>{number}</p>
    );
  });

  operators = operators.map(operator => {
    return (
      <p key={operator}>{operator}</p>
    );
  });

  return (
    <div className="keypad-container">
      <div className="numbers-container">
        {numbers}
      </div>
      <div className="operators-container">
        {operators}
      </div>
    </div>
  );
}
...

This should now break Keypad › should render 2 <div />'s. Update the test in Keypad.spec.js:

it('should render 3 <div />\'s', () => {
  expect(wrapper.find('div').length).toEqual(3);
});

Tests are green!

Add Keypad CSS

Now add the Keypad CSS variables along with the component CSS. Navigate to index.css and make the updates to the :root scope:

/*
app variables
*/

:root {
  /* background colors */
  --calculator-background-color: #696969;
  --display-background-color: #1d1f1f;

  /* font */
  --main-font: 'Orbitron', sans-serif;

  /* font colors */
  --display-text-color: #23e000;

  /* font sizes */
  --display-text-size: 4em;

  /* font weights */
  --display-text-weight: 400;

  /* calculator dimensions */
  --calculator-height: 72%;
  --calculator-width: 36%;

  /* display dimensions */
  --display-height: 24%;
  --display-width: 92%;

  /* keypad dimensions */
  --keypad-height: 72%;
  --keypad-width: 96%;
}

/*
media query for tablet or smaller screen
*/

@media screen and (max-width: 1024px) {
  :root {
    /* font sizes */
    --display-text-size: 6em;

    /* calculator dimensions */
    --calculator-height: 100%;
    --calculator-width: 100%;
  }
}

Add the following to Keypad.css:

.keypad-container {
  display: flex;
  flex-direction: row;
  flex-wrap: wrap;
  height: var(--keypad-height);
  padding: 2%;
  width: var(--keypad-width);
}

.numbers-container {
  display: flex;
  flex-direction: row;
  flex-wrap: wrap;
  height: 80%;
  width: 75%;
}

.operators-container {
  display: flex;
  flex-direction: column;
  height: 80%;
  width: 25%;
}

.submit-container {
  height: 20%;
  width: 100%;
}

About these CSS properties:

  • flex-direction: row; sets the layout of the content in the flex-container to row (this is the default direction of display: flex).
  • flex-wrap: wrap; informs the flex-container to wrap the content in the flex-container if it exceeds the flex-container width.
  • flex-direction: column; sets the layout of the content in the flex-container to column.

Finally, import Keypad.css into Keypad.jsx:

import React from 'react';
import PropTypes from 'prop-types';
import './Keypad.css';
...

Start the app:

$ yarn start

The browser should now look like this:

keypad render

Key Component

Check for Key in Keypad

Following the same shallow render test pattern we used with the Calculator, Display, and Keypad components, we’ll now check for the existence of the Key component in Keypad.

Add the following test to Keypad.spec.js:

it('should render an instance of the Key component', () => {
  expect(wrapper.find('Key').length).toEqual(1);
});

You may have noticed that in the previous tests we used containsMatchingElement when checking for child components. Because we will be rendering 17 different Key elements, each with a different keyAction, keyType, and keyValue, using containsMatchingElement will not work for this example. Instead we will check for the presence of the element(s) by using the find method, and then checking the length of the resulting array.

Create the test suite file for the Key component in “src/components/Key”, and then add the shallow render test for Key in Key.spec.js:

import React from 'react';
import {shallow} from 'enzyme';
import Key from './Key';

describe('Key', () => {
  let wrapper;
  beforeEach(() => {
    wrapper = shallow(
      <Key
        keyAction={jest.fn()}
        keyType={''}
        keyValue={''}
      />
    );
  });

  it('should render a <div />', () => {
    expect(wrapper.find('div').length).toEqual(1);
  });
});

Add the component to Key.jsx:

import React from 'react';
import PropTypes from 'prop-types';

const Key = ({keyAction, keyType, keyValue}) => <div className="key-container" />;

Key.propTypes = {
  keyAction: PropTypes.func.isRequired,
  keyType: PropTypes.string.isRequired,
  keyValue: PropTypes.string.isRequired,
}

export default Key;

Keypad › should render an instance of the Key component should still fail.

key instance fail test

Import Key component in Keypad.jsx and update the return statement:

...
import Key from '../Key/Key';
import './Keypad.css';

const Keypad = ({callOperator, numbers, operators, setOperator, updateDisplay}) => {
  ...
  return (
    <div className="keypad-container">
      <div className="numbers-container">
        {numbers}
      </div>
      <div className="operators-container">
        {operators}
      </div>
      <Key
        keyAction={callOperator}
        keyType=""
        keyValue=""
      />
    </div>
  );
}
...

Key renders keyValue

Next, add a new test to Key.spec.jsx that checks for the presence of the value of keyValue:

it('should render the value of keyValue', () => {
  wrapper.setProps({keyValue: 'test'});
  expect(wrapper.text()).toEqual('test');
});

Refactor the Key component in Key.jsx:

const Key = ({keyAction, keyType, keyValue}) => {
  return (
    <div className="key-container">
      <p className="key-value">
        {keyValue}
      </p>
    </div>
  );
}

All pass!

Add Key CSS

This is a good place to update our CSS variables and add the Key CSS. Navigate to index.css and make the following updates:

:root {
  /* background colors */
  --action-key-color: #545454;
  --action-key-color-hover: #2a2a2a;
  --calculator-background-color: #696969;
  --display-background-color: #1d1f1f;
  --number-key-color: #696969;
  --number-key-color-hover: #3f3f3f;
  --submit-key-color: #d18800;
  --submit-key-color-hover: #aa6e00;
  ...
  /* font colors */
  --display-text-color: #23e000;
  --key-text-color: #d3d3d3;

  /* font sizes */
  --display-text-size: 4em;
  --key-text-size: 3em;

  /* font weights */
  --display-text-weight: 400;
  --key-text-weight: 700;
  ...
}
...
@media screen and (max-width: 1024px) {
  :root {
    /* font sizes */
    --display-text-size: 10em;
    --key-text-size: 6em;
    ...
  }
}

The file should now look like:

/*
app variables
*/

:root {
  /* background colors */
  --action-key-color: #545454;
  --action-key-color-hover: #2a2a2a;
  --calculator-background-color: #696969;
  --display-background-color: #1d1f1f;
  --number-key-color: #696969;
  --number-key-color-hover: #3f3f3f;
  --submit-key-color: #d18800;
  --submit-key-color-hover: #aa6e00;

  /* font */
  --main-font: 'Orbitron', sans-serif;

  /* font colors */
  --display-text-color: #23e000;
  --key-text-color: #d3d3d3;

  /* font sizes */
  --display-text-size: 4em;
  --key-text-size: 3em;

  /* font weights */
  --display-text-weight: 400;
  --key-text-weight: 700;

  /* calculator dimensions */
  --calculator-height: 72%;
  --calculator-width: 36%;

  /* display dimensions */
  --display-height: 24%;
  --display-width: 92%;

  /* keypad dimensions */
  --keypad-height: 72%;
  --keypad-width: 96%;
}

/*
media query for tablet or smaller screen
*/

@media screen and (max-width: 1024px) {
  :root {
    /* font sizes */
    --display-text-size: 10em;
    --key-text-size: 6em;

    /* calculator dimensions */
    --calculator-height: 100%;
    --calculator-width: 100%;
  }
}

/*
app CSS reset
*/

body, div, p {
  margin: 0;
  padding: 0;
}

Then add the component CSS in Key.css:

.key-container {
  align-items: center;
  display: flex;
  height: 25%;
  justify-content: center;
  transition: background-color 0.3s linear;
}

.key-container:hover {
  cursor: pointer;
}

.operator-key {
  background-color: var(--action-key-color);
  width: 100%;
}

.operator-key:hover {
  background-color: var(--action-key-color-hover);
}

.number-key {
  background-color: var(--number-key-color);
  width: calc(100%/3);
}

.number-key:hover {
  background-color: var(--number-key-color-hover);
}

.submit-key {
  background-color: var(--submit-key-color);
  height: 100%;
  width: 100%;
}

.submit-key:hover {
  background-color: var(--submit-key-color-hover);
}

.key-value {
  color: var(--key-text-color);
  font-family: var(--main-font);
  font-size: var(--key-text-size);
  font-weight: var(--key-text-weight);
}

The transition: background-color 0.3s linear; property is used to give our hover effects a smooth animation between the non-hover and the on-hover background colors. The first argument (background-color) defines which property to transition, the second (0.3s) specifies the length of the transition in seconds, and the third (linear) is the style of the transition animation.

Last, import the CSS and make the aforementioned updates in Key.jsx:

import React from 'react';
import PropTypes from 'prop-types';
import './Key.css';

const Key = ({keyAction, keyType, keyValue}) => {
  return (
    <div className={`key-container ${keyType}`}>
      <p className="key-value">
        {keyValue}
      </p>
    </div>
  );
}
...

Add Snapshot Testing for Key

With the Key component UI complete, we can add snapshot testing. At the top of the tests in Key.spec.js, add:

it('should render correctly', () => {
  expect(wrapper).toMatchSnapshot();
});

Again, this test will immediately pass and it will continue passing until a change has been made to the Key component UI.

Refactor Keypad to use Key for numbers, operators, and submit

Since we want to render a Key component for each index of the numbers and operators arrays as well as the submit key, refactor the Keypad › should render an instance of the Key component test in Keypad.spec.js:

it('should render an instance of the Key component for each index of numbers, operators, and the submit Key', () => {
  const numbers = ['0', '1'];
  const operators = ['+', '-'];
  const submit = 1;
  const keyTotal = numbers.length + operators.length + submit;
  wrapper.setProps({numbers, operators});
  expect(wrapper.find('Key').length).toEqual(keyTotal);
});

Refactor the map functions and the Key component in the return statement of Keypad.jsx:

...
const Keypad = ({callOperator, numbers, operators, setOperator, updateDisplay}) => {

  numbers = numbers.map(number => {
    return (
      <Key
        key={number}
        keyAction={updateDisplay}
        keyType="number-key"
        keyValue={number}
      />
    );
  });

  operators = operators.map(operator => {
    return (
      <Key
        key={operator}
        keyAction={setOperator}
        keyType="operator-key"
        keyValue={operator}
      />
    );
  });

  return (
    <div className="keypad-container">
      <div className="numbers-container">
        {numbers}
      </div>
      <div className="operators-container">
        {operators}
      </div>
      <div className="submit-container">
        <Key
          keyAction={callOperator}
          keyType="submit-key"
          keyValue="="
        />
      </div>
    </div>
  );
}
...

After the refactor, Keypad › should render the Key component for each index of numbers, operators, and the submit Key passes, but the following tests fail:

  1. Keypad › renders the values of numbers
  2. Keypad › renders the values of operators

If you check the test runner, the Keypad › renders the values of operators fail should look like this:

failing tests

This is due to the shallow rendering method only going one layer deep and returning the contents of the component being shallow rendered and not the contents of child components. In other words, when these tests use find, the return contents are just Key elements, not the actual content inside the Key. For this functionality we can use Enzyme mount, which does a full DOM render and allows to us to get the text values of the child elements. We’ll move these tests into their own describe statement to prevent unnecessary calls to shallow.

As a rule for writing your rendering tests:

  1. Always start with shallow (shallow render)
  2. Use mount, when you want to test either
    • componentDidMount or componentDidUpdate
    • DOM rendering, component lifecycle, and the behavior of child components

Also, Keypad › should render 3 <div />'s fails because we have added another container div.

Update Keypad.spec.js like so:

import React from 'react';
import {mount, shallow} from 'enzyme';
import Keypad from './Keypad';
import Key from '../Key/Key';

describe('Keypad', () => {
  let wrapper;
  beforeEach(() => {
    wrapper = shallow(
      <Keypad
        callOperator={jest.fn()}
        numbers={[]}
        operators={[]}
        setOperator={jest.fn()}
        updateDisplay={jest.fn()}
      />
    );
  });

  it('should render 4 <div />\'s', () => {
    expect(wrapper.find('div').length).toEqual(4);
  });

  it('should render an instance of the Key component for each index of numbers, operators, and the submit Key', () => {
    const numbers = ['0', '1'];
    const operators = ['+', '-'];
    const submit = 1;
    const keyTotal = numbers.length + operators.length + submit;
    wrapper.setProps({numbers, operators});
    expect(wrapper.find('Key').length).toEqual(keyTotal);
  });
});

describe('mounted Keypad', () => {
  let wrapper;
  beforeEach(() => {
    wrapper = mount(
      <Keypad
        callOperator={jest.fn()}
        numbers={[]}
        operators={[]}
        setOperator={jest.fn()}
        updateDisplay={jest.fn()}
      />
    );
  });

  it('renders the values of numbers to the DOM', () => {
    wrapper.setProps({numbers: ['0', '1', '2']})
    expect(wrapper.find('.numbers-container').text()).toEqual('012');
  });

  it('renders the values of operators to the DOM', () => {
    wrapper.setProps({operators: ['+', '-', '*', '/']});
    expect(wrapper.find('.operators-container').text()).toEqual('+-*/');
  });
});

The tests should pass. Run the app. You should see:

keypad render

Add Keypad snapshot

Now that the UI is completed for the Keypad component, add the snapshot test to Keypad.spec.js:

it('should render correctly', () => {
  expect(wrapper).toMatchSnapshot();
});

Again, the snapshot test will immediately pass.

Refactor Calculator State

Add the number and operator values to the state object in Calculator.jsx:

...
class Calculator extends Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);

    this.state = {
      // value to be displayed in <Display />
      displayValue: '0',
      // values to be displayed in number <Keys />
      numbers: ['9', '8', '7', '6', '5', '4', '3', '2', '1', '.', '0','ce'],
      // values to be displayed in operator <Keys />
      operators: ['/', 'x', '-', '+'],
      // operator selected for math operation
      selectedOperator: '',
      // stored value to use for math operation
      storedValue: '',
    }
  }
  ...
}
...

After the changes, the Calculator snapshot breaks since we made changes to the UI of Calculator. We need to update the snapshot. This can be done by entering u in the task runner or by passing the --updateSnapshot flag in when calling the test runner from the command line:

$ yarn test --updateSnapshot

Run the app:

final application render

We have completed developing the UI and writing of the render tests for the components, and are ready to move on to giving our calculator functionality.

Application Functions

In this section, we will use TDD to write our application functions, updateDisplay, setOperator, and callOperator by utilizing the red-green-refactor cycle of creating failing tests and then writing the corresponding code to make them pass. We’ll begin by testing for the click event for the different calculator methods.

Click Event Tests

For each of the calculator methods we’ll write tests that check for calls to the individual methods when the corresponding key type is clicked.

These tests will go in their own describe block as we need to use mount rather than shallow since we are testing the behavior of child components. The tests involve (1) first creating a spy using the Jest spyOn method for the calculator method we are testing, (2) calling forceUpdate to re-render the instance within the test, then (3) using Enzyme’s simulate method on the corresponding Key to create the event.

Add the following in Calculator.spec.js:

describe('mounted Calculator', () => {
  let wrapper;
  beforeEach(() => {
    wrapper = mount(<Calculator />);
  });

  it('calls updateDisplay when a number key is clicked', () => {
    const spy = jest.spyOn(wrapper.instance(), 'updateDisplay');
    wrapper.instance().forceUpdate();
    expect(spy).toHaveBeenCalledTimes(0);
    wrapper.find('.number-key').first().simulate('click');
    expect(spy).toHaveBeenCalledTimes(1);
  });

  it('calls setOperator when an operator key is clicked', () => {
    const spy = jest.spyOn(wrapper.instance(), 'setOperator');
    wrapper.instance().forceUpdate();
    expect(spy).toHaveBeenCalledTimes(0);
    wrapper.find('.operator-key').first().simulate('click');
    expect(spy).toHaveBeenCalledTimes(1);
  });

  it('calls callOperator when the submit key is clicked', () => {
    const spy = jest.spyOn(wrapper.instance(), 'callOperator');
    wrapper.instance().forceUpdate();
    expect(spy).toHaveBeenCalledTimes(0);
    wrapper.find('.submit-key').simulate('click');
    expect(spy).toHaveBeenCalledTimes(1);
  });
});

Don’t forget to import mount:

import {mount, shallow} from 'enzyme';

Now refactor Key.jsx to execute the calculator methods on click events:

...
const Key = ({keyAction, keyType, keyValue}) => {
  return (
    <div
      className={`key-container ${keyType}`}
      onClick={() => {keyAction(keyValue)}}
    >
      <p className="key-value">
        {keyValue}
      </p>
    </div>
  );
}
...

The tests will pass, but the Key snapshot fails. Update the Key snapshot by entering u in the test runner or from the command line run:

$ yarn test --updateSnapshot

Now that the onClick handler has been added to Key, run the app and then hop back into the browser and open the JavaScript console. Click on a number key. The output of the click event should look like this:

console log

Now we are ready for the function tests!

Update Display Tests

The updateDisplay method will take a single string argument, value, and update the displayValue in the state object. When displayValue is updated, React will re-render the Display component with the new value of displayValue as the display text.

We need to add a new describe block for updateDisplay in our Calculator test file, and then add our tests for the updateDisplay method. In the tests, updateDisplay will be called from the wrapper.instance() object and the result will be tested against the state object.

Navigate to Calculator.spec.js, declare the describe block, and add the tests inside:

describe('updateDisplay', () => {
  let wrapper;
  beforeEach(() => {
    wrapper = shallow(<Calculator />);
  });

  it('updates displayValue', () => {
    wrapper.instance().updateDisplay('5');
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('5');
  });

  it('concatenates displayValue', () => {
    wrapper.instance().updateDisplay('5');
    wrapper.instance().updateDisplay('0');
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('50');
  });

  it('removes leading "0" from displayValue', () => {
    wrapper.instance().updateDisplay('0');
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('0');
    wrapper.instance().updateDisplay('5');
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('5');
  });

  it('prevents multiple leading "0"s from displayValue', () => {
    wrapper.instance().updateDisplay('0');
    wrapper.instance().updateDisplay('0');
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('0');
  });

  it('removes last char of displayValue', () => {
    wrapper.instance().updateDisplay('5');
    wrapper.instance().updateDisplay('0');
    wrapper.instance().updateDisplay('ce');
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('5');
  });

  it('prevents multiple instances of "." in displayValue', () => {
    wrapper.instance().updateDisplay('.');
    wrapper.instance().updateDisplay('.');
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('.');
  });

  it('will set displayValue to "0" if displayValue is equal to an empty string', () => {
    wrapper.instance().updateDisplay('ce');
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('0');
  });
});

Now, update the updateDisplay method in the Calculator component and then bind the method to the component in the constructor method. Refer to the React docs for more info on bind:

You have to be careful about the meaning of this in JSX callbacks. In JavaScript, class methods are not bound by default. If you forget to bind this.handleClick and pass it to onClick, this will be undefined when the function is actually called.

Navigate to Calculator.jsx, add the bind in the constructor and update updateDisplay:

...

class Calculator extends Component {
  constructor(props) {
    this.state = {
      ...
    }

    this.updateDisplay = this.updateDisplay.bind(this);
  }
  ...
  updateDisplay(value) {
    let {displayValue} = this.state;

    // prevent multiple occurences of '.'
    if (value === '.' && displayValue.includes('.')) value = '';

    if (value === 'ce') {
      // deletes last char in displayValue
      displayValue = displayValue.substr(0, displayValue.length - 1);
      // set displayValue to '0' if displayValue is empty string
      if (displayValue === '') displayValue = '0';
    } else {
      // replace displayValue with value if displayValue equal to '0'
      // else concatenate displayValue and value
      displayValue === '0' ? displayValue = value : displayValue += value;
    }

    this.setState({displayValue});
  }
  ...
}
...

All tests should now pass, navigate to the browser and click the number keys to see the display update.

number keys

Now move on to the setOperator method!

Set Operator Tests

The setOperator method will take a single string argument, value, and it will update displayValue, selectedOperator, and storedValue in the state object.

Again, add a describe block for setOperator in our Calculator test file and then add the tests for the setOperator method. Like before, setOperator will be called from the wrapper.instance() object and the result will be tested against the state object.

Navigate over to Calculator.spec.js, add the describe block along with the tests:

describe('setOperator', () => {
  let wrapper;
  beforeEach(() => {
    wrapper = shallow(<Calculator />);
  });

  it('updates the value of selectedOperator', () => {
    wrapper.instance().setOperator('+');
    expect(wrapper.state('selectedOperator')).toEqual('+');
    wrapper.instance().setOperator('/');
    expect(wrapper.state('selectedOperator')).toEqual('/');
  });

  it('updates the value of storedValue to the value of displayValue', () => {
    wrapper.setState({displayValue: '5'});
    wrapper.instance().setOperator('+');
    expect(wrapper.state('storedValue')).toEqual('5');
  });

  it('updates the value of displayValue to "0"', () => {
    wrapper.setState({displayValue: '5'});
    wrapper.instance().setOperator('+');
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('0');
  });

  it('selectedOperator is not an empty string, does not update storedValue', () => {
    wrapper.setState({displayValue: '5'});
    wrapper.instance().setOperator('+');
    expect(wrapper.state('storedValue')).toEqual('5');
    wrapper.instance().setOperator('-');
    expect(wrapper.state('storedValue')).toEqual('5');
  });
});

Navigate to Calculator.jsx. Update the setOperator method (don’t forget to bind it in the constructor):

...
class Calculator extends Component {
  constructor(props) {
    ...
    this.setOperator = this.setOperator.bind(this);
    this.updateDisplay = this.updateDisplay.bind(this);
  }
  ...
  setOperator(value) {
    let {displayValue, selectedOperator, storedValue} = this.state;

    // check if a value is already present for selectedOperator
    if (selectedOperator === '') {
      // update storedValue to the value of displayValue
      storedValue = displayValue;
      // reset the value of displayValue to '0'
      displayValue = '0';
      // update the value of selectedOperator to the given value
      selectedOperator = value;  
    } else {
      // if selectedOperator is not an empty string
      // update the value of selectedOperator to the given value
      selectedOperator = value;
    }

    this.setState({displayValue, selectedOperator, storedValue});
  }
  ...
}

export default Calculator;

Again, all tests are now green. Move on to callOperator.

Call Operator Tests

The callOperator method has no arguments. It updates displayValue, selectedOperator, and storedValue in the state object.

Once again, we need a describe block for callOperator in our Calculator test file. Then, we’ll add our tests for the callOperator method inside. As in the above sections, callOperator will be called from the wrapper.instance() object and the result will be tested against the state object.

Navigate to Calculator.spec.js and add the new describe block at the bottom of the file:

describe('callOperator', () => {
  let wrapper;
  beforeEach(() => {
    wrapper = shallow(<Calculator />);
  });

  it('updates displayValue to the sum of storedValue and displayValue', () => {
    wrapper.setState({storedValue: '3'});
    wrapper.setState({displayValue: '2'});
    wrapper.setState({selectedOperator: '+'});
    wrapper.instance().callOperator();
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('5');
  });

  it('updates displayValue to the difference of storedValue and displayValue', () => {
    wrapper.setState({storedValue: '3'});
    wrapper.setState({displayValue: '2'});
    wrapper.setState({selectedOperator: '-'});
    wrapper.instance().callOperator();
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('1');
  });

  it('updates displayValue to the product of storedValue and displayValue', () => {
    wrapper.setState({storedValue: '3'});
    wrapper.setState({displayValue: '2'});
    wrapper.setState({selectedOperator: 'x'});
    wrapper.instance().callOperator();
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('6');
  });

  it('updates displayValue to the quotient of storedValue and displayValue', () => {
    wrapper.setState({storedValue: '3'});
    wrapper.setState({displayValue: '2'});
    wrapper.setState({selectedOperator: '/'});
    wrapper.instance().callOperator();
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('1.5');
  });

  it('updates displayValue to "0" if operation results in "NaN"', () => {
    wrapper.setState({storedValue: '3'});
    wrapper.setState({displayValue: 'string'});
    wrapper.setState({selectedOperator: '/'});
    wrapper.instance().callOperator();
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('0');
  });

  it('updates displayValue to "0" if operation results in "Infinity"', () => {
    wrapper.setState({storedValue: '7'});
    wrapper.setState({displayValue: '0'});
    wrapper.setState({selectedOperator: '/'});
    wrapper.instance().callOperator();
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('0');
  });

  it('updates displayValue to "0" if selectedOperator does not match cases', () => {
    wrapper.setState({storedValue: '7'});
    wrapper.setState({displayValue: '10'});
    wrapper.setState({selectedOperator: 'string'});
    wrapper.instance().callOperator();
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('0');
  });

  it('updates displayValue to "0" if called with no value for storedValue or selectedOperator', () => {
    wrapper.setState({storedValue: ''});
    wrapper.setState({displayValue: '10'});
    wrapper.setState({selectedOperator: ''});
    wrapper.instance().callOperator();
    expect(wrapper.state('displayValue')).toEqual('0');
  });
});

Navigate to Calculator.jsx, update the callOperator method (keeping in mind to bind the method in the constructor):

class Calculator extends Component {
  constructor(props) {
    ...
    this.callOperator = this.callOperator.bind(this);
    this.setOperator = this.setOperator.bind(this);
    this.updateDisplay = this.updateDisplay.bind(this);
  }

  callOperator() {
    let {displayValue, selectedOperator, storedValue} = this.state;
    // temp variable for updating state storedValue
    const updateStoredValue = displayValue;

    // parse strings for operations
    displayValue = parseInt(displayValue, 10);
    storedValue = parseInt(storedValue, 10);

    // performs selected operation
    switch(selectedOperator) {
      case '+':
        displayValue = storedValue + displayValue;
        break;
      case '-':
        displayValue = storedValue - displayValue;
        break;
      case 'x':
        displayValue = storedValue * displayValue;
        break;
      case '/':
        displayValue = storedValue / displayValue;
        break;
      default:
        // set displayValue to zero if no case matches
        displayValue = '0';
    }

    // converts displayValue to a string
    displayValue = displayValue.toString();
    // reset selectedOperator
    selectedOperator = '';
    // check for 'NaN' or 'Infinity', if true set displayValue to '0'
    if (displayValue === 'NaN' || displayValue === 'Infinity') displayValue ='0';

    this.setState({displayValue, selectedOperator, storedValue: updateStoredValue});
  }
  ...
}

export default Calculator;

The calculator is now fully functional!

final app

All tests should be passing as well!

all tests passing

Final Thoughts

At this point we have:

  1. Employed Test-driven Development, along with Enzyme and Jest, to structure our application and write our tests.
  2. Used CSS Variables to allow for variable reuse and reassignment for responsive design.
  3. Written a reusable React component that we were able to render with individual functions and in multiple styles.
  4. Used React’s PropTypes for type-checking throughout the application.

Next steps:

You may have noticed a quirk if you play with the calculator, that the . key doesn’t work quite as expected. You know what to do: Write a test first, debug, and then write the code to pass the test.

Another quirk you have come across is that if you click a key following an operation (doesn’t matter which key), the displayValue doesn’t quite update the way we would expect if we are trying to mimic the experience of using an average calculator. Compare this calculator with another calculator, isolate the differences in the experience, write some tests for the new outcomes, lastly updating the calculator functionality to get the tests green.

Try experimenting with the CSS:

new css

After the above items, the next steps could be to add a loading transition or an event listener for keyboard events to the application for a better user experience. If you are curious on how to set up the latter, you can find the completed application in the master branch of the react-calculator repo on GitHub.

Hope you enjoyed the post!


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