vault and consul

Dynamic Secret Generation with Vault and Flask

Posted by Michael Herman on Aug 13, 2018 | Last updated on Oct 3, 2018

In this tutorial, we’ll look at a quick, real-world example of using Hashicorp’s Vault and Consul to create dynamic Postgres credentials for a Flask web app.



Before beginning, you should have:

  1. A basic working knowledge of secret management with Vault and Consul. Please refer to the Managing Secrets with Vault and Consul blog post for more info.
  2. An instance of Vault deployed with a storage backend. Review the Deploying Vault and Consul post to learn how to deploy both Vault and Consul to DigitalOcean via Docker Swarm. Vault should also be initialized and unsealed.
  3. A Postgres server deployed. Use the AWS RDS Free Tier if you don’t have Postgres running.
  4. Worked with Flask and Docker before. Review the Microservices with Docker, Flask, and React course for more info.

Getting Started

Let’s start with a basic Flask web app.

If you’d like to follow along, clone down the vault-consul-flask repo, and then check out the v1 tag to the master branch:

$ git clone --branch v1 --single-branch
$ cd vault-consul-flask
$ git checkout tags/v1 -b master

Take a quick look at the code:

├── Dockerfile
├── docker-compose.yml
├── project
│   ├──
│   ├── api
│   │   ├──
│   │   ├──
│   │   ├──
│   │   └──
│   └──
└── requirements.txt

Essentially, for this app to work, we need to add the following environment variables to a .env file:

  1. DB_USER


import os

USER = os.environ.get('DB_USER')
PASSWORD = os.environ.get('DB_PASSWORD')
SERVER = os.environ.get('DB_SERVER')

class ProductionConfig():
    """Production configuration"""
    SQLALCHEMY_DATABASE_URI = f'postgres://{USER}:{PASSWORD}@{SERVER}:5432/users_db'

Configuring Vault

Again, if you want to follow along, you should have an instance of Vault deployed with a storage backend. This instance should be initialized and unsealed as well. Want to get a cluster up and running quickly? Run the script from vault-consul-swarm to deploy a Vault and Consul cluster to three DigitalOcean droplets. It will take less than five minutes to provision and deploy!

First, log in to Vault (if necessary) and then enable the database secrets backend from the Vault CLI:

$ vault secrets enable database

Success! Enabled the database secrets engine at: database/

Add the Postgres connection along with the database engine plugin info:

$ vault write database/config/users_db \
    plugin_name="postgresql-database-plugin" \
    connection_url="postgres://{{username}}:{{password}}@<ENDPOINT>:5432/users_db" \
    allowed_roles="mynewrole" \
    username="<USERNAME>" \

Did you notice that the URL has templates for username and password in it? This is used to prevent direct read access to the password and enable credential rotation.

Be sure to update the database endpoint as well as the username and password. For example:

$ vault write database/config/users_db \
    plugin_name="postgresql-database-plugin" \
    connection_url="postgres://{{username}}:{{password}}" \
    allowed_roles="mynewrole" \
    username="vault" \

This created a new secrets path at “database/config/users_db”:

$ vault list database/config


Next, create a new role called mynewrole:

$ vault write database/roles/mynewrole \
    db_name=users_db \
    creation_statements="CREATE ROLE \"{{name}}\" \
        WITH LOGIN PASSWORD '{{password}}' VALID UNTIL '{{expiration}}'; \
        GRANT SELECT ON ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA public TO \"{{name}}\";" \
    default_ttl="1h" \

Success! Data written to: database/roles/mynewrole

Here, we mapped the mynewrole name in Vault to a SQL statement that, when ran, will create a new user with all permissions in the database. Keep in mind that this hasn’t actually created a new user yet. Take note of the default and max TTL as well.

Now we’re ready to create new users.

Creating the Credentials

Take a quick look at what users you have available from psql:

$ \du

Create a new file called in the project root:


rm -f .env

echo DB_SERVER=<DB_ENDPOINT> >> .env

user=$(curl  -H "X-Vault-Token: $VAULT_TOKEN" \
        -X GET http://<VAULT_ENDPOINT>:8200/v1/database/creds/mynewrole)
echo DB_USER=$(echo $user | jq -r .data.username) >> .env
echo DB_PASSWORD=$(echo $user | jq -r .data.password) >> .env

docker-compose up -d --build

So, this will make a call to the Vault API to generate a new set of credentials from the /creds endpoint. The subsequent response is parsed via JQ and the credentials are added to a .env file. Make sure to update the database (DB_ENDPOINT) and Vault (VAULT_ENDPOINT) endpoints.

Add the VAULT_TOKEN environment variable:


Build the image and spin up the container:

$ sh

Verify that the environment variables were added successfully:

$ docker-compose exec web env

You should also see that user in the database:

Role name                                   | Attributes                                  | Member of
 v-root-mynewrol-jC8Imdx2sMTZj03-1533704364 | Password valid until 2018-08-08 05:59:29+00 | {}

Create and seed the database users table:

$ docker-compose run web python recreate_db
$ docker-compose run web python seed_db

Due to recent, breaking changes in the Click library, a Flask dependency, you may need to invoke the above commands with dashes instead of underscores:

$ docker-compose run web python recreate-db
$ docker-compose run web python seed-db

Test it out in the browser at http://localhost:5000/users:

  "status": "success",
  "users": [{
    "active": true,
    "admin": false,
    "email": "",
    "id": 1,
    "username": "michael"

Bring down the containers once done:

$ docker-compose down


That’s it!

Remember that in this example the credentials are only valid for an hour. This is perfect for short, dynamic, one-off tasks. If you have longer tasks, you could set up a cron job to fire the script every hour to obtain new credentials. Just keep in mind that the max TTL is set to 24 hours.

You may also want to look at using envconsul to place the credentials into the environment for Flask. It can even restart Flask when the credentials get updated.

You can find the final code in the vault-consul-flask repo.

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