Part 1, Chapter 1
By the end of this course, you will have added token-based user authentication to a Flask app, using JSON Web Tokens (JWTs), and configured a React app to handle client-side authentication.
The API itself will follow RESTful design principles, using the basic HTTP verbs: GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE.
|Endpoint||HTTP Method||CRUD Method||Result|
|/auth/register||POST||CREATE||register a new user|
|/auth/login||POST||CREATE||log a user in|
|/auth/refresh||POST||CREATE||obtain a new access token|
|/auth/status||GET||READ||check user status|
|/users||GET||READ||get all users|
|/users/:id||GET||READ||get a single user|
|/users||POST||CREATE||add a user|
|/users/:id||PUT||UPDATE||update a user|
|/users/:id||DELETE||DELETE||delete a user|
The final app will consist of two microservices:
- The first microservice is the back-end authentication service. It will be built with Python, Flask, Flask-RESTX, and Postgres. We'll use pytest instead of unittest for writing unit and integration tests to test the Flask API. Finally, to add token-based authentication, we'll use the Flask-Bcrypt and PyJWT packages.
Before diving in, let's take a minute to go over why some of the above tools are being used.
Flask and Django are the two most popular Python web frameworks. Django is older and more mature than Flask, but it's also more opinionated. On the other hand, Flask is lighter weight so it doesn't make many decisions for you. You get to decide how you want to implement things. At its core, Flask is simple yet extensible, which is perfect for developing RESTful APIs and microservices.
For more, review Django vs. Flask: Which Framework to Choose.
Docker is a container platform used to streamline application development and deployment workflows across various environments. It's used to create the infrastructure required -- like installing Linux, configuring system-level dependencies, and running Python -- for the web app within a lightweight container that can be moved from your development machine to the production server quickly and easily.
pytest is a test framework for Python that makes it easy (and fun!) to write, organize, and run tests. When compared to unittest, from the Python standard library, pytest:
- Requires less boilerplate code so your test suites will be more readable.
- Supports the plain
assertstatement, which is far more readable and easier to remember compared to the
assertSomethingmethods -- like
assertContains-- in unittest.
- Is updated more frequently since it's not part of the Python standard library.
- Simplifies setting up and tearing down test state with its fixture system.
- Uses a functional approach.
React is technically not a framework; it's a view library. That said, when coupled with Create React App and React Router it can be considered more of a framework.
React Testing Library
As mentioned, React Testing Library (RTL) is a testing library designed specifically for React. It helps reduce the amount of boilerplate needed and provides a nice utility library, making it easier to write tests. When it comes to utility libraries, Enzyme is really your only other option. While Enzyme focuses on testing state and props, RTL focuses more on testing end user behavior. RTL has a much lower barrier to entry since it's less flexible and provides much fewer testing methods and options.
GitLab is a web-based solution for managing the full software development lifecycle. Along with source code management, they provide a a number of project management and DevOps-related services, like Kanban boards, package management, logging and monitoring, continuous integration and delivery, secrets management, and container orchestration.
For more, review GitLab's DevOps Tools Landscape.
Heroku is a cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS) that provides hosting for web applications. They offer abstracted environments where you don't have to manage the underlying infrastructure, making it easy to manage, deploy, and scale web applications. With just a few clicks you can have your app up and running, ready to receive traffic.
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