Part 1, Chapter 1
This chapter looks at the basic building blocks of Celery and producer/consumer-based task queues in general.
By the end of this chapter, you will be able to:
- Explain why you may want to use a task queue like Celery
- Describe the basic producer/consumer model and how it relates to Celery
Celery is an open source, asynchronous task queue that's often coupled with Python-based web frameworks like Django or Flask to manage background work outside the typical request/response cycle. In other words, rather than having to block a response that contains a long-running process, you can return an HTTP response back immediately and run the process as a background task.
Potential use cases:
- You've developed a messaging app that provides "@ mention" functionality where a user can reference another user via
@<user_name>in a comment. The mentioned user then receives an email notification. This is probably fine to handle synchronously for a single mention, but if one user mentions ten users in a single comment, you'll need to send ten different emails. Since you'll probably have to talk to an external service you could run into network issues. Regardless, this is a task that you'll want to run in the background.
- If your messaging app allows a user to upload a profile image, you'll probably want to use a background process to generate a thumbnail.
- Celery can handle periodic tasks as well, like generating daily reports or clearing expired session data.
As you build out your web app, you should try to ensure that the response time of a particular view is lower than 500ms. Application Performance Monitoring tools like New Relic or Scout can be used to help surface potential issues and isolate longer process that could be moved to a background process managed by Celery.
This course uses Celery v4.4.7 since Flower does not support Celery 5.
Celery vs RQ
RQ (Redis Queue) is another open source, Python-based task queue that is often compared to Celery. While the core logic of RQ and Celery are very much the same in that they both use the producer/consumer model, they differ in that:
- RQ is much simpler to use and easier to learn than Celery. However, it lacks some features and can only be used with Redis.
- Celery is quite a bit more complex and harder to implement and learn, but it is much more flexible and has many more features. It supports Redis along with a number of other backends.
For more, review this Stack Overflow answer.
Message broker and Result backend
Let's start with some terminology:
- Message broker is an intermediary program used as the transport for producing or consuming tasks.
- Result backend is used to store the result of a Celery task.
The Celery client is the producer which adds a new task to the queue via the message broker. Celery workers then consume new tasks from the queue, again, via the message broker. Once processed, results are then stored in the result backend.
In terms of tools, RabbitMQ is arguably the better choice for a message broker since it supports AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol) while Redis is fine as your result backend.
For simplicity, we'll use Redis for both our message broker and backend for the first part of this course. We'll then switch to RabbitMQ for our message broker in the deployment chapter. Feel free to use a different message broker and/or result backend based on your specific requirements.
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